Here is the video version for this topic. You can read the written version which comes after the video section.

Let's say you wanted to create a pattern that matches "b", followed by 5 "a"s, that is "aaaaa". You could write the pattern like this:


But what if you want to match 16 "a"s, now that could make your regex construct longer:


But you can make your repetitive patterns more concise, using Quantifiers.

Quantifiers specify the quantity of a set of characters. Quantity here means the number of occurrences. With quantifiers, you can create repeating characters in your patterns.

Quantifiers are created with curly braces. The syntax is:

/X{min, max}/

"X" can be any character. Then you specify the minimum and maximum occurrences separated by comma. The maximum is optional.

For example, in our baaaaa example, you can create a pattern like this:


This means, "b" followed by five "a" characters (5 occurrences of "a").

Let's see a string example:


You can see the substrings with a "b" followed by five "a"s matching the pattern. You see that the other substrings with b followed by "a"s do not match, because the "a"s are not up to 5.

To specify a range of occurrences, you can add the maximum parameter along with the minimum parameter like this:


Here, we have specified a pattern that matches "b" followed by either 2 "a"s, 3 "a"s, 4 "a"s, or 5 "a"s. 2 is the minimum, 5 is the maximum.

Applying this to our string again:


You see that:

  • "b", followed by 5"a"s is matched
  • "b", followed by 4"a"s is matched
  • "b", followed by 2"a"s is matched
  • and "b", followed by 3"a"s is matched

"b", followed by 1"a" is not matched, because our quantifier range specifies a minimum of 2"a"s.

You can also have the comma, but leave the maximum empty like this:


This means the pattern will match "b" followed by 2 or more "a"s. Applying this on our string again:


A quantifier defines a repetition of the character preceding it in the pattern. The preceding character can be a literal character like "a" (as we saw above), or it can also be a Character Set. For example, a character set with a range of a to z, and a quantifier specifying three repetitions:


Starting from the character set, this specifies a range of a to z. So this can match any letter from a to z. Then by adding the quantifier it means, any letter from a to z (1), followed by a letter from a to z (2), and followed by a letter from a to z (3). That is, three times.

This quantifier example, can be written without a quantifier like this:


Which means any three letters between a and z.

Let's change the pattern back and test this on a string:


Remember flags right? In this pattern, the global flag g is added so the pattern returns multiple matches. The case insensitive flag i is also added so that there's no strictness with the casing of characters.

As you can see from the results, this pattern matches β€œHis”, β€œnam”, Dee, β€œand”, β€œwas”, β€œbad” and β€œdev”. These are three letters which match our pattern. Our pattern says, any letter between a to z, for three times.


Note: that this does not mean that the particular character is repeated three times. For example, let's say the letter β€œg” from the a-z range matches, this pattern does not mean g, g, g. It means any letter from a to z (1), followed by any letter from a to z (2), and followed by any letter from a to z (3).

A character class can contain a mix of letters, numbers and even symbols. So we can use a quantifier with a mixed character class. For example:


This simply means "match any substrings with 9 or more letters or numbers".

We can use this pattern for example to verify if the password a user enters contains only letters and numbers and has minimum of 9 characters.

For example:


As you can see, "jha8302kdlst" is matched because it has letters and numbers with 12 characters.

But a password like "$my_password" would fail:


This is because this string contains a dollar sign "$" which is not included in the character class.

As developers, we don't like repeating ourselves. And this is why we have quannnntifieeerrrsss πŸ˜‰